Technical Results
kcef.ru Public Sector Program Project Reports

  • Leak Detection of A2L Refrigerants in HVACR Equipment, M. Wagner and R. Ferenchiak, 2017 (AHRTI-9009)
  • Benchmarking Risk by Whole Room Scale Leaks and Ignitions Testing of A2L Refrigerants, P. Gandhi, G. Hunter, R. Haseman and B. Rodgers, 2017 (AHRTI-9007-01)
  • Field Evaluation Methods of Combustion Equipment in Residences, N. Hughes and C. Suchovsky, 2017 (kcef.ru-8011)
  • The Effect of Lower Return Air Temperatures on Furnace Heat Exchangers, R. Sandstrom, N. Hughes, CJ Suchovsky and C. Suchovsky, 2017 (kcef.ru-8014)
  • Developing Fan Power Terminal Unit Performance Data and Models Compatible with Energy Plus, Dennis L. O’Neal, Carl Reid, Douglas Ingram, Di Lu, John A. Bryant, Saurabh Gupta, Basel Kanaan, Stephen Bryant, and Peng Yin, 2016 (kcef.ru-8012)
  • Risk Assessment of Class 2L Refrigerants in Commercial Rooftop Units, B. Goetzler, M. Guernsey, S. Faltermeier and M. Droesch, 2016 (kcef.ru-8016)
  • Review of Refrigerant Management Programs, Navigant Consulting, Inc., 2016 (kcef.ru-8018)
  • A Study of Methods to Represent Compressor Performance Data over an Operating Envelope Based on a Finite Set of Test Data, V. Aute, C. Martin, and R. Radermacher (AHRI-8013)
  • Risk Assessment of Refrigeration Systems Using 2L Flammable Refrigerants, 2015 (kcef.ru-8009)
  • Material Compatibility & Lubricants Research for Low-GWP Refrigerants-Phase II: Chemical and Material Compatibility of Low GWP Refrigerants with HVACR Materials of Construction, J. Majurin, E. Sorenson, S.J. Staats, W. Gilles, and S.A. Kujak, 2014 (kcef.ru-8007)
  • Risk Assessment of Class 2L Refrigerants in Chiller Systems, B. Goetzler, M. Guernsey, and C. Weber, 2013 (kcef.ru-8005)
  • The Impact of Duct Design on Life Cycle Costs of Central Residential Heating and Air-conditioning Systems, B. Stephens (kcef.ru-8002)
  • Universal Vent Test Report, P. Glanville (kcef.ru-8010)
  • Joining Techniques Assessment, D. Clodic, Y. Yu (AHRTI-9006)
  • ASHRAE SPC 177P Fractionation Apparatus Evaluation, A. Kusmierz (AHRTI-9005)
  • Low Global Warming Potential (GWP) Refrigerants, Phase II: Defining the Configurations of Residential Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Systems Using Hydrocarbons, Ammonia, Carbon Dioxide, and HFO-1234yf as Refrigerants and Meeting Previously Defined Safety Requirements, W. Goetzler, D. Westphalen, and J. Burgos (kcef.ru-8006)
  • Novel Materials for Heat Exchangers, Phase II Report, A. M. Jacobi, K. Nawaz, and J. Bock, 2013 (AHRTI-06030-02)
  • Risk Assessment of Residential Heat Pump Systems Using 2L Flammable Refrigerants, T. A. Lewandowski, 2012 (kcef.ru-8004)
  • Void Fraction Measurement and Modeling for Condensing Refrigerant Flows in Small Diameter Tubes, T. A. Shedd, 2012 (AHRTI-20110-01)
  • Material Compatibility & Lubricants Research for Low GWP Refrigerants – Phase I: Thermal and Chemical Stability of Low GWP Refrigerants with Lubricants, N. D. Rohatgi, R. W. Clark, D. R. Hurst, 2012 (AHRTI-9004-01)
  • Performance Standards for Walk-in Refrigerator and Freezer Systems, B. Becker, B. Fricke, and B. Sartin, 2012 (AHRTI-9002-01)
  • Technical Feasibility Study Carbon Monoxide Sensing Safety Systems for Appliances, D. Kalensky, and F. Johnson, 2011 (kcef.ru-8001)
  • Life Cycle Climate Performance Model for Residential Heat Pump Systems, M. Zhang, J. Muehlbauer, V. Aute, and R. Radermacher, 2011 (AHRTI-9003-01, AHRTI LCCP Calculation Tool, AHRTI LCCP HP 1.0 Installation Instruction, AHRTI LCCP HP 1.0 User Guide)
  • Thermal Stability and Chemical Compatibility of R-22 Replacement Refrigerants, Cavestri, El-Shazly, and Seeger-Clevenger, 2010 (kcef.ru-8003)
  • Novel Materials for Heat Exchangers, Phase I Report, Jacobi, Han, Park, Sommers, T’Joen, and Wang, 2008. (ARTI-06030-01)
  • Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements and CFD-Based Predictions of Air Distribution at Evaporator Inlet and Outlet, Yashar and Domanski, 2009. (ARTI-07010-01)
  • Review of Regulations and Standards for the Use of Refrigerants with GWP Values Less than 20 in HVAC&R Applications, Goetzler, Burgos, Hiraiwa, and Sutherland, 2010. (ARTI-09001-01)
  • Gas Interchangeability Testing Report, Gas Consultants, Inc., 2009. (Final Report)
  • Electro-Osmosis for Dehumidification, Gerlach, 2008. (ARTI-10090-02)
  • Recovery of Throttling Losses by a Two-Phase Ejector in a Vapor Compression Cycle, Liu and Groll, 2008. (ARTI-10110-01)
  • Thermoelectric Technology Assessment, Yang, 2007. (ARTI-10120-01— currently in development)
  • Near-Critical/Supercritical Heat Transfer Measurements of R-410A in Small Diameter Tube, Garimella, 2008. (ARTI-20120-01)
  • Electrostatic Forces and Water Sprays for Temperature, Humidity, and Indoor Air Quality Control, Hensley and Bryan, 2008. (ARTI Report No. 20140-01)
  • Whole House Ventilation System Options – Phase 1 Simulation Study, Lstiburek, Pettit, and Rudd, 2007. (ARTI-30090-01)
  • Comparison of Vertical Display Cases: Energy Efficiency and Productivity of Glass Doors vs. Open Display Cases, Fricke and Becker, 199. (ASHRAE-1402-RP— currently in development)
  • Energy and Performance of Secondary Coolant Low-temperature Refrigeration Systems (ASHRAE-1484— currently in development)


21CR Program Reports

Electronic copies of 21CR project reports are available upon request from kcef.ru Director of Research.

Strategic Reports

  • Strategic Planning for the HVACR Industry, Report I – Industry Opportunities, J. M. Tooman, Inc., 2001
  • Strategic Planning for the HVACR Industry, Report II – Research Recommendations, J. M. Tooman, Inc., 2001


Emerging Technologies Project Reports

  • The Efficiency Limits of Water Vapor Compressors Suitable for Air-Conditioning Applications, Wright, Yoshinaka, Le Drew, and D'Orsi, 2000. (ARTI-21CR/605-10010-01)
  • Microchannel Heat Exchangers with Carbon Dioxide, Zhao, Ohadi, and Radermacher, 2001. (ARTI-21CR/605-10020-01)
  • Evaluation of the Performance Potential of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) as a Refrigerant in Air-to-Air Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: System Modeling and Analysis, Ortiz, Li and Groll, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/610-10030-01)
  • Evaluating the Performance of Thermoacoustic Cooling, Braun, Mongeau, Minner, Alexander, and Paek, 2001. (ARTI-21CR/610-10040-01)
  • Fundamental Understanding of Heat and Mass Transfer in Ammonia-Water Absorber, Garimella, 2006. (ARTI-21CR/612-10050-01 Interim Report – Phase 1)
  • Fundamental Understanding of Heat and Mass Transfer in Ammonia-Water Absorber - Phase 2, Garimella, 2007. (ARTI-21CR/612-10050-02 Final Report - Phase 2)
  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Compressor-Expander Analysis, Huff and Radermacher, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/611-10060-01)
  • Measurement of Performance of Carbon Dioxide Compressors, Hubacher and Groll, 2002. (ARTI-21CR/611-10070-01)
  • Model and Evaluation Tools for Assessing Magnetocaloric Effect for Space Conditioning and Refrigeration Applications, Engelbrecht, Nellis, and Klein, 2005. (ARTI-21CR-612-10075-01)
  • Use of Water Vapor as a Refrigerant: Part II; Cycle Modifications and System Impacts on Commercial Feasibility, Lachner Jr., Nellis, and Reindl, 2004. (ARTI-21CR/611-10080-01)


HVAC&R Energy Efficiency Project Reports

  • Evaluating the Ability of Unitary Equipment to Maintain Adequate Space Humidity Levels, Brandemuehl and Katejanekarn, 2001. (ARTI-21CR/605-20010-01)
  • Evaluating the Ability of Unitary Equipment to Maintain Adequate Space Humidity Levels - Phase II, Witte and Henninger, 2006. (ARTI-21CR/605-20011-01) (ARTI-21CR/605-20011-01A Appendices)
  • An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art and Potential Design Improvements, for Flat-tube Heat Exchangers in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Applications - Phase I, Jacobi, Park, Tafti, and Zhang, 2001. (ARTI-21CR/605-20020-01)
  • Flat-Tube Heat Exchangers in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Applications - Phase II, Jacobi, Park, Zhong, Michna, and Xia, 2005.(ARTI-21CR/611-20021-01)
  • Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency
  • Economical Copper Rotor Production, Peters, Cowie, Brush, Jr., and Midson, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/605-20030-01)
  • Motor Test Results, Copper vs. Aluminum, Brush, Jr., Cowie, Peters, and Van Son, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/605-20030-02)
  • Refrigerant Evaporation Characteristics Inside Flat Passages, Thome and Quiben, 2005. (ARTI-21CR/605-20040-01)
  • Potential Benefits of Smart Refrigerant Distributors, Payne and Domanski, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/610-20050-01)
  • High Condensing Temperature Heat Transfer Performance of Low Critical Temperature Refrigerants, Garimella, 2006. (ARTI-21CR/610-20060-01)
  • Variable Primary Flow Chilled Water Systems: Potential Benefits and Application Issues, Bahnfleth and Peyer, 2004. (ARTI-21CR/611-20070-01)
  • Critical Literature Review on Lubricant Influence in Refrigerant Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop, Shen and Groll, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/611-20080-01)
  • Comparison of the Total Energy Consumption of Series vs. Parallel Fan Powered VAV Terminal Units (1292-RP)
  • Phase I Development of Models for Series and Parallel Fan Variable Air Volume Terminal Units, Furr, Jr., O'Neal, Davis, Bryant; and Cramlet, 2007. (ARTI-21CR/612-20090-01, Phase 1 Report)
  • Phase 2 Comparison of the Total Energy Consumption of Series versus Parallel Fan Powered VAV Terminal Units, Davis; Bryant, O'Neal, Hervey; and Cramlet, 2007. (ARTI-21CR/612-20090-02 Phase 2 Report)


System Integration Project Reports

  • State-of-the-Art Review, Whole Building, Building Envelope, HVAC Component and System Simulation and Design Tools, Jacobs and Henderson, 2002 (ARTI-21CR/605-30010/30020-01)
  • Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings - Phase I, Loftness, Brahme, Mondazzi, Vineyard, and MacDonald, 2002 (ARTI-21CR/605-30030-01)
  • Methods for Automated and Continuous Commissioning of Building Systems Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. and Battelle Northwest Division, 2003 (ARTI-21CR/610-30040-01)
  • Automated Integration of Real-Time Information into Building Management Systems, Stunder, Sebastian, Chube, and Koontz, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/611-30050-01)
  • System Optimization of Residential Ventilation, Space Conditioning and Thermal Distribution, Proctor and Pira, 2005. (ARTI-21CR/611-30060-01)
Indoor Environmental Quality Focus Area
  • Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork
  • VanOsdell and Foarde, 2002. (ARTI-21CR/610-40030-01)
  • Investigation of Building Exhaust Air Re-Entrainment Into Outdoor Air Intakes of Packaged Outdoor HVAC Equipment - Phase I, Stickford, Saunders, Hesse, Osborne, and Talbert, 2002. (ARTI-21CR/610-40040-01)
  • Investigation of Building Exhaust Air Re-Entrainment Into Outdoor Air Intakes of Packaged Outdoor HVAC Equipment - Phase II, Osborne, Aume, Goshe, Ricci, and Talbert, 2005. (ARTI-21CR/612-40041-01)
  • The Role of Filtration in Maintaining Clean Heat Exchanger Coils, Yang, Braun, and Groll, 2004. (ARTI-21CR/611-40050-01)
  • Simulating the Performance of Natural and Hybrid Ventilation Systems in U.S. Office Buildings, Emmerich and Crum, 2005. (ARTI-21CR/611-40076-01)
  • Portable Mold Detectors - Operating Requirements, Harriman, 2004
  • (ARTI-21CR/612-40080-01)
  • Portable Mold Detectors - Survey of Potential Technologies, Harriman, 2005
  • (ARTI-21CR/612-40080-02)
  • Portable Mold Detectors - Technical Feasibility and Operational Requirements, De Jesús, Balasubramanian, Bayer, Greneker, Harriman, Hendry, Rowland, Showman, Sylvester, and Trostel, 2006. (ARTI-21CR/612-40080-03)


Working Fluids Project Reports

  • Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point
  • Task 1- Refrigerant Properties, McLinden, Laesecke, Lemmon, Magee, and Perkins, 2002. (ARTI-21CR/605-50010-01-Pt1)
  • Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study, Domanski andPayne, 2002. (ARTI-21CR/605-50010-01-Pt2)
  • Investigation of R-410A Air Conditioning System Performance Operating at Extreme Ambient Temperatures up to the Refrigerant Critical Point – ORNL, Rice, 2005 (ARTI-21CR/605-50015-01)
  • Determination of Refrigerant Lower Flammability Limits in Compliance with Proposal Addendum 34p to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34 (ASHRAE 1073-RP), Wilson and Richard, 2002. (ARTI-21CR/605-50020-01)
  • Assessment of the Commercial Implications of ASHRAE A3 Flammable Refrigerants Used in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems, Goetzler and Dieckmann, 2001. (ARTI-21CR/610-50025-01)
  • Study of the Effects of Water in Synthetic Lubricant Systems and Clathrate Formation, Rohatgi, 2001. (ARTI-21CR/610-50035-01)
  • Development of a Reproducible Screening Method to Determine the Mechanism and Effect of Organic Acids and other Contaminants on the Corrosion of Aluminum-finned Copper-tube Heat Exchanger Coils, Corbett and Severance, 2005. (ARTI-21CR/611-50055-01)
  • Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance, Cartlidge and Schellhase, 2003. (ARTI-21CR/611-50060-01)

MCLR Program Reports

All reports have since been consolidated in electronic format on CD-ROM and is available upon request from the kcef.ru Director or Research.

Refrigerant Properties Project Reports

  • Thermophysical Properties, Kayser,1993. (DOE/CE/23810-16)
  • Thermophysical Properties of HFC-143a and HFC-152a, Haynes, 1994. (DOE/CE/23810-39)
  • Thermophysical Properties of HCFC Alternatives, Haynes, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-80)
  • Development of the REFPROP Database and Transport Properties of Refrigerants, McLinden, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-97)
  • ARTI Refrigerant Database - Primary and Recently-added Citations, Calm, 1999. (DOE/CE/23810-103)
  • ARTI Refrigerant Database - Archival and Historical Citations, Calm, 1999. (DOE/CE/23810-104)
  • ARTI Refrigerant Database Data summaries – Volume I: Single-compound Refrigerants, Calm, 1999. (DOE/CE/23810-105)
  • ARTI Refrigerant Database Data summaries – Volume II: Blends (Zeotropes and Azeotropes), Calm, 1999. (DOE/CE/23810-106)
  • ARTI Refrigerant Database Data summaries – Volume III: Toxicity and Compatibility, Calm, 1999. (DOE/CE/23810-107)
  • Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits, Calm, 2000. (DOE/CE/23810-110)
  • Foaming Characteristics of Refrigerant / Lubricants Mixtures, Goswami, Shah, Jotshi, Bhagwat, Leung, Gregory, and Lu, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-88)


Chemical Stability Project Reports

  • Chemical and Thermal Stability of Refrigerant-lubricant Mixtures with Metals, Huttenlocher 1992. (DOE/CE/23810-5)
  • Accelerated Screening Methods for Determining Chemical and Thermal Stability of Refrigerant-lubricant Mixtures, Kauffman,1995. (DOE/CE/23810-41) (Volume One), (Volume Two)
  • Accelerated Screening Methods for Determining Chemical and Thermal Stability of Refrigerant-lubricant Mixtures, Part I: Method Assessment; Kauffman, 1993. (DOE/CE/23810-10)


Material Compatibility Project Reports

  • Compatibility of Refrigerants and Lubricants with Motor Materials, Doerr and Kujak, 1993. (DOE/CE/23810-13) (Volume One), (Volume Two), (Volume Three) (Volume Four)
  • Compatibility of Refrigerants and Lubricants with Motor Materials under Retrofit Conditions, Doerr and Waite, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-63) (Volume One), (Volume Two), (Volume Three), (Volume Four)
  • Compatibility of Refrigerant and Lubricants with Elastomers, Hamed, Seiple,and Taikum, 1994. (DOE/CE/23810-14)
  • Compatibility of Refrigerant and Lubricants with Engineering Plastics, Cavestri, 1993. (DOE/CE/23810-15)
  • Sealed Tube Comparisons of the Compatibility of Desiccants with Refrigerants and Lubricants, Field, 1995. (DOE/CE/23810-54)
  • Compatibility of Manufacturing Process Fluids with R-134a and Polyolester Lubricant, Cavestri and Schooley, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-55)
  • Compatibility of Lubricant Additives with HFC Refrigerants and Synthetic Lubricants, Part I, Cavestri, 1997. (DOE/CE/23810-76)
  • Documentation of Newly Developed Methods to Assess Material Compatibility in Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Applications, Hawley, 1994. DOE/CE/23810-47
  • Accelerated Test Methods for Predicting the Life of Motor Materials Exposed to Refrigerant-lubricant Mixtures, Ellis II and Ferguson, 2000. (DOE/CE/23810-94)


Energy Efficiency Project Reports

  • Theoretical Evaluation of R22 and R502 Alternatives, Domanski and Didion,1993. (DOE/CE/23810-7)
  • Evaluation of HFC-245ca for Commercial use in Low Pressure Chillers, Keuper, Hamm, and Glamm, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-67) (Volume One), Volume Two)
  • Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) Enhancement of Pool and in-tube Boiling of Alternate Refrigerants, Ohadi, Dessiatoun, Singh, Fanni, 1993. (DOE/CE/23810-17)
  • Impact of Air and Refrigerant Maldistributions on the Performance of Finned-tube Evaporators with R-22 and R-407C, Lee and Domanski, 1997. (DOE/CE/23810-81)


Lubricant Project Reports

  • Miscibility of Lubricants with Refrigerants, Pate, Zoz, and Berkenbosch, 1993. (DOE/CE/23810-18)
  • Solubility, Viscosity and Density of Refrigerant/lubricant Mixtures, Henderson, 1994. (DOE/CE/23810-34)
  • Measurement of Viscosity, Density, and Gas Solubility of Refrigerant Blends in Selected Synthetic Lubricants, Cavestri, 1995. (DOE/CE/23810-46)
  • Study of Lubricant Circulation in HVAC Systems, Biancardi, Michels, Sienel, and Pandy, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-71) (Volume One), Volume Two)
  • Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Gunsel and Pozebanchuk, 1999. (DOE/CE/23810-102) (Volume One), Volume Two)
  • Accelerated Screening Methods for Predicting Lubricant Performance in Refrigerant Compressors, Cusano, Yoon, and Poppe,1994. (DOE/CE/23810-45)


Refrigerant Flammability Project Reports

  • Methods Development for Measuring and Classifying Flammability/Combustibility of Refrigerants, Task 1: Annotated Bibliography and Summary, Heinonen and Tapscott, 1994. (DOE/CE/23810-42G)
  • Methods Development for Measuring and Classifying Flammability/Combustibility of Refrigerants, Task 2: Test Plan, Heinonen and Tapscott, 1994. (DOE/CE/23810-42H)
  • Methods Development for Measuring and Classifying Flammability/Combustibility of Refrigerants, Task 3: Laboratory Test Results, Heinonen, Tapscott, and Crawford, 1994. (DOE/CE/23810-50)
  • Lean Flammability Limit as a Fundamental Refrigerant Property, Phase I, Womeldorf, King, and Grosshandler, 1995. (DOE/CE/23810-58)
  • Lean Flammability Limit as a Fundamental Refrigerant Property, Phase II, Womeldorf and Grosshandler, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-68)
  • Lean Flammability Limit as a Fundamental Refrigerant Property, Phase III, Grosshandler, Donnelly, and Womeldorf, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-98)
  • Investigation into the Fractionation of Refrigerant Blends, Biancardi, Michels, Sienel, and Pandy, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-75)
  • Refrigerant Flammability Testing in Large Volume Vessels, Flammability Criterion Determination for ASTM E681, Richard, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-87)
  • Risk Assessment of HFC-32 and HFC-32/134a (30/70 wt%) in Split System Residential Heat Pumps, Goetzler, Bendixen, and Bartholomew, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-92)


Refrigerant Contaminant Control Project Reports

  • Investigation of Flushing and Clean-out Methods for Refrigeration Equipment to Ensure System Compatibility, Byrne, Shows, and Abel, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-73)
  • Products of Motor Burnout, Hawley-Fedder, Goerz, Koester, and Wilson, 1996. (DOE/CE/23810-74)
  • Effect of Selected Contaminants in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment, Cavestri, Falconi, Ruona, and Schooley, 2000. (DOE/CE/23810-111)
  • Effects of Temperature on Desiccant Catalysis of Refrigerant and Lubricant Decompositions, Rohatgi, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-95)
  • Equilibrium Point Dryness and Water Capacity of Desiccants with Alternative Refrigerants, Cavestri and Schafer, 2000. (DOE/CE/23810-108)
  • Water Solubility and Clathrate Hydrates in HFC Refrigerants and Refrigerant Blends, Cavestri and Schafer, 2000. (DOE/CE/23810-112)
  • Infrared Analysis of Refrigerant Mixtures, Morse, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-82)
  • Methods Development for Organic Contaminant Determination in Fluorocarbon Refrigerant Azeotropes and Blends, Byrne, Abel, and Gbur, 1998. (DOE/CE/23810-85)
  • Development and Consolidation of Gas Chromatography Methods for Appendix C to ARI 700, Byrne, Gbur, and Gehring, 2000. (DOE/CE/23810-109)